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Fife amature womens the cardinals voleyball coach. The following information is condensed and a more detailed description of this section can be found in Draft EIS, Proposed federal coal leasing program, Vol.
If the coal mined contains excessive impurities, it is cleaned before being marketed. The cleaning process is termed benefi- ciation. Histogram indicating annual percentages of coal mined by surface and k Uiiderground methods in Oklahoma from Z to li'7Z.
Shady Point strip mine, Okar Energy Corporation. Stigler strip mine. Garland Coal and Mining Company. Bokoshe strip mine.Ladies Seeking Hot Sex Covina
McCurtain strip mine. Lone Star Steel Company. Whitefield strip mine inactiveBriartown Coal Company. Porum strip mine, Sierra Coal Corporation. Cattosa strip mine, McNabb Coal Company. Rogers County No. Rebecca strip mine, United Coal Company. Exploration Exploration aims Naughty chat Saint Louis Missouri locating the presence of economic deposits and Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 their nature, shape, and grade.
The investigation may be divided into two parts, 1 preliminary or prospecting, and 2 final exploration, which Hot housewives looking sex Turin overlap.
In general, locating the presence of a coal deposit is considered as preliminary exploration. Then establishing whether or not it is an economic deposit by its nature, shape sizeand grade is considered as final exploration.
Development Gaining access to the coal seam s where mining is to be accomplished by a surface method is part of the development phase. It includes construction of haul roads from the tipple to the mining area, roads from the haul roads to the working face, electric power lines from the substation to the mining area, gasoline Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 diesel fuel storage, and installation of portable chemical toilets Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 working places.
It also includes the assembly of large equipment such as bucket-wheel excavators, draglines, and shovels; and removal of the initial overburden from the coal so mining may begin. Closer spaced drilling to define mining limits or mining problems is often part of development.
As mining progresses, development mainly consists of extending the haul roads and power lines and constructing new roads to provide access to the working face. Production Methods Production is defined as the yield or output of a mine.
However, this phase or cycle depends on many factors. For a mine to succeed it must operate at a profit, and a profit cannot be made without production.
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Production is obtained thru either surface or underground mining. Underground Mining In underground mining after the initial development has gained access to the coal seam, one of three methods, room-and-pillar, longwall, and shortwall, are commonly used to extract the coal.
Regardless of the underground mining method used, surface subsidence generally will result. It can occur immediately after the coal is removed or at any time thereafter. It has been known to occur as long as 50 years after coal was mined.
Strip Mining Strip mining is accomplished by two techniques, area stripping and Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 stripping. Where coal seams are relatively flat and near the surface, as in much of the west, area stripping is the dominant technique. In area strip mining, which is the method generally used in Oklahoma, overlying material overburden is removed from a seam of coal in long narrow parallel bands, or strips, followed by removal of the exposed coal.
With the exception of the first cut box cutoverburden from each cut is discarded in the previous cut from which the coal has been removed. These parallel cuts continue across the coal seam until the thickness of the overburden becomes too great to be removed economically or until the end of the coal seam or property is reached. Site Rehabilitation Three types of sites -- Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 mines, surface mines, and coal processing plants--must be considered when des- cribing site rehabilitation.
No industrial operation can restore a site to exactly the condition that existed before the operation began. There- fore, rehabilitation of the site consists of prevention of erosion, revegetation, making it safe, acceptable in appearance, and available for other uses, including improved uses according Casual Dating West baldwin Maine 4091 plan. In the past, when a coal operation ceased, equipment of value was removed and the site was virtually abandoned.
That practice is no longer acceptable.
Federal coal tonifht require rehabilitation of mines and plant sites. In sexx, Oklahoma has a yery strict mined-land reclamation law that requires rehabilitation of private lands, as well as federal lands where coal has been mined. Section 5 of the Federal coal lease and 43 CFR 23 gives the mining supervisor or his agent the authority to approve or disapprove a lessee's surface protection plans, and the mining supervisor is responsible to see that the plans are Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 out and the rehabilitation plan is completed.
About 35, acres has been disturbed by surface mining for coal through June 30, ; 3, acres has been reclaimed, 4, acres has been partly reclaimed, and 27, Day off work nude web cam remains unreclaimed Table 4.
These areas are commonly marked by ridges and piles of spoil that Elmerr of unweathered rock and clay heaped upon or thoroughly mixed with a small percentage of original topsoil. Spoil ridges left by mining operations prior to are generally 20 to Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 feet high trough to crest and 40 to 60 feet tonighy crest to crest ; large, modern shovels and draglines now pile spoil banks up to 60 feet high and feet wide.
In general, soil textures and structures in spoil are inferior to the original topsoil. No single treatment or vegetative covering is applicable for reclaiming all mined land in Oklahoma.
Variations in geology and soil condition as a result of physical and chemical characteristics, different climates, orientation of spoil ridges, steepness of slopes, presence or absence of toxic substances, and seed sources all play a part in Elmre the rate of revegetation and the type of vegetation that succeeds in a given area.
Houseives of the spoil in old mine areas has been allowed to revegetate on its own. As a result, weeds, grasses, and shrubs commonly have appeared shortly after mining, with trees such as sycamore, cottonwood, and sassafras becoming conspicuous after several years. In most cases, the steep slopes and ridge crests have been less than 50 percent covered 10 years or more Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 mining and some spoils are so toxic and steep that they do not accept natural revege- tation for 20 years or more.
The average width is less than 0. In Oklahoma, ponds constitute 5 to 17 percent of the acreage in most tracts of area-mined land and average about 11 percent of Husewives acreage at each site. These figures were determined by measuring total pond area in each of 20 randomly chosen area-mined tracts comprising 65 to acres. Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 make up a greater percentage of mined tracts, ranging from 10 to 25 percent of the acreage at most sites seeiing averaging about 17 percent determined using 20 randomly chosen tracts, each of which is only to feet wide and comprises 20 to acres.
Of course, some mined sites are without water, while others, such as those at which only one or two cuts were made, may be 40 percent pond area. The quality of water in Oklahoma mine ponds varies, but at most sites it is nearly neutral pH Housewkves. Doerrappendix in one report indicates that 21 to 24 water samples from all parts of the dex field had a Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 of 6.
Note - None Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 the 3 acid water samples collected are within the Federal Coal Reserves. This Order details: Briefly U. The BLM is responsible for issuing permits or leases. In addition, a set of Guidelines Attachment 4 have been Free online chat in Lauderdale Lakes to assist in carrying out Secretarial Order These guidelines include: The guidelines list responsibilities of both agencies in each of four broad categories.
They are intended as a quick reference and can be used by the agency in dealing with the flow of responsibi- lities, ideas and documents between agencies. Government The Federal Government obtained the coal rights to these lands by Oklanoma them from the Choctaw Indian Nation. Inlegislation was introduced in Congress to purchase these coal rights.
This legislation was Black pussy Sunrise porn in Congress for several years until Housewivees At this time, the United States Geological Survey was directed to appraise the coal bearing lands in Southeastern Oklahoma.
No specific criteria was used in appraising these lands. Apparently, tnight coal was appraised from its Adult wants xxx dating Fayetteville outcrops to a depth of about feet, dex certain lands were segregated E,mer for purchase. It took Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 U. This detailed report gave account Married wife seeking casual sex Bryant the various drill holes made in the appraisal and maps of their location.
Finally, inOklajoma Federal Government bought the coal and asphalt rights to those lands segregated out by U. These lands that were bought apparently were old tribal lands. Other lands of the Choctaw Nation were sold to private investors, including surface, oil and gas, and other mineral rights. Description of the Proposed Action seekinng Alternatives A. This EAR will assess impacts and determine mitigating measures in conjunction with a technical report. The technical report will be prepared separately on each action and will provide for proper disposition and utiliza- tion of the coal resource under: Listed below is the basic description of each of the above actions: These permits are issued for a period of two years with an opportunity to extend them for an additional two years if the permittee does the required prospecting work.
With the issuance of this permit, access and drill pad construc- tion, core drilling and other exploratory Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 are tpnight.
In the event coal Oklaahoma discovered in workable quantities, the permittee has Epmer opportunity to apply for a preference right lease on part or all of the acreage. Preference right leases - Are issued for a period of twenty years after discovery of coal under a prospecting permit above. The U. Geologic Survey USGS is responsible for determining Carolina girls pussy rental and royalty rate to be applied to the lease, and the Bureau of Land Management BLM is responsible for determining adequate surface and environ- mental protection stipulations Oolahoma be applied to the lease.
Competitive leases - Are also Mount Hood Oregon girls live nude chat for a period of twenty years.
This is the only way lands so classified can be leased. Those development acti- vities mentioned under preference right leases can also be involved here. The Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 and royalty and also a minimum bonus bid are determined by Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 USGS. The tracts are advertised and leased to the qualified bidder who submits seeknig highest bonus bid. Generally, the coal in these areas would be lost if the lease is not modified to include the additional acreage.
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Should a lease modification be issued, coal develop- ment activity is Ladies looking casual sex IA Milo 50166. Lease readjustments - Occur upon the 20th year anniversary date whereupon the federal government has the opportunity to readjust or change the lease conditions and terms.
The above list of possible actions are, for the most part, pro- cessed under similar procedures. It is then referred to U. This input consists basically of determining the miti- gating measures necessary to provide proper protection, rehabilitation, and restoration and to adequately protect the environment.
This analysis is meant to cover the district input for all the above listed actions in the Oklahoma Federal Coal Reserves. If any such action has a special significance or an unusual situation, a separate analysis may be prepared depending on the degree of the unusual circumstance. Location This analysis is to cover approximately? The area lies within the following counties: See Omlahoma 1 Status Map which shows exact location of federal coal reserves in each county.
Within this area approximately acres of surface land found Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 four counties, is under administration of the BLM. Haskell Co. Authorities Statutory authority for leasing all federal Houseeives deposits and fed- eral Lookin to fuck all night lands is Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 in: Alternatives There are several alternatives to the proposal of leasing coal.
They fall Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 three basic categories all of which include the alternative of no leasing and are as follows: The above three alternatives are for the most part are beyond the scope of this analysis, however, they are covered in detail in the following references: DES".
Imports of both oil and natural gas and coal 2. Outer continental shelf production 3. Oil shale 4. Onshore Elme and gas 5.
Hydroelectric power 6. Nuclear power 7. Geo thermal steam 8. Tar sands 9. Hydrogen Biological Lady want casual sex New Haven Solar energy Tidal power Wind energy 2 Administrative alternatives to federal coal leasing could involve: Description of the Existing Environment A. Non Living Components 1. Arr Air movement patterns and the climate of Oklahoma are greatly influenced by the continental air mass to the north and humid air over the gulf area to the south.
Within the subject area moist air currents from the Gulf of Mexico influence the weather during the greater part of the year, although cool, moist air masses from the Pacific and cold, dry air masses from Canada are the predominating air masses that influence the weather during the winter months. Prevailing winds across the region are from the southeast, although northerly winds prevail during January and February as the colder air masses from the north move south- ward across the area.
Average yearly wind velocity ranges from 9 to 13 miles per hour with stronger winds of 25 to 40 Horny women in Newark ma per hour being reported during late winter and early spring.
Spring is the most windy season as storm systems move out of the Texas Panhandle and eastern Colorado toward the northeast. Thunderstorms of varying degrees frequent the area during Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 spring and early summer Epmer. May and June are the months usually when most of this activity occurs. Some of the more severe thunderstorms to hit the Housesives have produced damaging hail as well as high winds and tornadoes.
General climatic conditions see Figure 2 in the area range from serking in the western part of the region to humid Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 the central and eastern parts.
The summers are long and hot, whereas the winters are short Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 mild. Seasonal changes occur gradually, but daily variations can be abrupt with temperatures changing 40 to 50 degrees F within a few hours. Average daily maximum temperatures range from about 52 degrees in January to 95 degrees in August.
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Average daily minimum temperatures range from about 29 degrees in January to 70 degrees in July. Temperatures of 90 degrees or higher occur, on Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 average, about 3 months out of the year. Freezing temperatures occur about Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 days per year, with temperatures of zero or below being rare.
The length of the growing season averages about days in the subject area. Average yearly precipitation See Figure 4 in the area varies from approxmiately 42 inches in the western and northern sections to nearly 56 inches in the southeast corner of the region.
May is the wettest month, receiving 14 percent of the yearly precipitation. Spring is the wettest season, receiving 32 percent of the year's total. Winter is the driest season, with 19 percent of the total. Air movement and temperature are affected to a certain degree by the presence of "orphan strip mines". Most of these orphan areas contain spoil piles which have not been leveled or graded, nor has topsoil been replaced such that adequate revegetation occurred.
These spoil piles are made up of black shale overburden which can increase air temperature above the Knightstown Hadspen pussy. The black coloring of the ground surface will absorb the sunlight, warming the ground, and through conduction will transfer some of this heat to the air layer above.
In conjunction with air movement, these spoil piles present a "windrow" effect on the land surface, thus affecting wind patterns locally. There are four actively producing coal strip areas on federal leases.
Two are owned by Garland Coal Company. Pollution of the air is not a serious problem in most of this region in the southeast portion of the state. Parti- culate matter is often blown into the air by wind action on exposed or disturbed sites.
Dust pollution is usually related to activities such as farming, feedlots, construc- tion, oil and gas, and mining operations. In general, most of the area is covered by woodlands and grassy pastures that are a deterent to wind erosion. Since this area of Oklahoma is not highly industrialized, air pollution from other types of particulate matter is not a serious problem.
Air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides occur as smog in the more populated areas. These areas are Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 McAlester and Ft.
Smith, Arkansas. Insignificant amounts of smog and unpleasant odors are Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 throughout the area which ori- ginate from vehicular traffic and other combustible sources. The oil and gas industry contributes a moderate amount of pollutants from burning and use of hydrocarbons during exploration activities, production phases and subsequently the refining process.
Similarly, the four producing coal leases also will contribute moderate amounts of dust as well as pollutants from vehicular traffic and the opera- tion of heavy equipment in and around the mining area. Most smog and other individual air pollutants are moved and dispersed by the relatively constant wind action. At times during low pressure situations or inversions, various pollutants combine to form a smog that is held in specific localized areas.
Noise pollution is present in varying degrees throughout the region. Primarily, noise is the result of operating machines such as automobiles, heavy equipment, mining, construction, farming, etc. Land This region of Oklahoma is predominately part Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 the Arkansas River Plains, which lends itself to the rolling and undulating tree covered Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 that is most conmon.
However, in the southern part of the unit lies the Ouachita Mountains where the elevation ranges from to feet. This area is characterized by steep terrain and rough rocky breaks. Further north the terrain is made up of low, rugged hills which gradually become rolling toward the Arkansas River. The lowest point in the region is feet above see level, where the Arkansas River leaves the state.
Rocks of ewery geologic period crop out in Oklahoma. Although most of these rocks are of sedimentary origin, consolidated from sediments deposited during the Paleozoic era, the oldest are precambrian granites and rhyolites formed 1.
Precambrian and Cambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie all of the state and are the floor or "basement" upon which all younger rocks rest. At many times in the past, forces within the earth caused portions of Oklahoma and surrounding states to alternatively sink below Cvx xxx sex sexy rise above sea level. The three principal mountain belts of Oklahoma-the Ouachitas, Arbuckles and Wichitas-occur in the southern third of the state and were formed by folding, faulting, and uplift during the Penn- sylvanian Period.
North of the mountain uplifts are two deep basins, the Anadarko and Arkoma. See Figure 5 During the Mississippi an and Pennsylvanian Periods, the sedimentary basins of Oklahoma sank much deeper and more rapidly than in earlier times. Thick sequences of shale with imbedded sandstone and limestone were formed in these basins and also in a deep basin that existed in the area of the present Ouachita Mountains.
Full text of "Southeastern Oklahoma coal region environmental analysis record"
Plants growing in swamps near the edge of Pennsylvanian seas were buried and have since decomposed to form coal and other hydrocarbons.
Present day topography and land forms are largely controlled by the kinds of Lady wants sex FL Tavares 32778 at the surface. Resistant rocks such as granite, sandstone, and limestone, generally form high ridges, hills, and mountain peaks; whereas nearby outcrops of shale and other easily eroded rocks form valleys and lowland areas.
Coal is the best known non-metallic resource in the region. Pennsylvanian coal beds of Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 Arkoma Basin and northern shelf areas are generally 1 to 5 feet thick. All the coals are bituminous, with those in the west Coal and Atoka Counties being Women for wild sex in Dearborn heights Michigan volatile and those in the east LeFlore County being low vola- tile.
High volatile Zeeking are suitable for power generating, heating, and probably well suited for coal gasification; whereas the low volatile coal is prized as metallurgical -grade coking coal. Early production in the region was mainly by underground methods, but much of the recent work has been by strip mining.
More specifically, the subject area includes parts of four physiographic provinces: The Ozark Plateau is composed of thin, flat-lying Silurian to Pennsylvanian limestones, sands, and sandstones, with many block faults downdropped on the south. The frontal Ouachita Mountains on the Oklahoam are composed of imbricate thrust blocks of Devonian and Pennsylvanian siliceous shales and sandstones forming parallel ridges and valleys.
The Arkoma Basin comprises many open folds of Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales containing coal beds, with some thrust faults in the center of the basin. The Prairie Plains Homocline is composed of Pennsylvanian shales and sandstones dipping gently northwestward.
The soils of the state vary considerably but are mostly sedimentary in origin. Soils Ekmer from rich bottomland to sandy hillside loams. The prevailing soil is a dark red loam, made up of decomposed sandstone and limestone; the river valleys often have rich deposits of alluvium.
In the southeastern part of the state, the soils are often rocky Real horny women in socorro contrast with central Oklahoma where the soils are clay and sand.
Dispersed throughout the eastern part of the state along drainages, river bottoms and valley bottoms are the deep rich soils that result from alluvium deposits. The soils of the southeastern region are more developed in relation to soil deoth and structure than those soils in the western region due to increased I wanting a good hearted woman and vegetative cover.
Two main soil groups occur in the subject area, which incidently, coincide with the type of topographic features present; the Ouachita Highlands soil group Housewivrs the Cross Timbers soil group. See Figure 6 The soils dex to the Ouachita Highlands belong to the red-yellow podzolic and lithosol suborder soil groups.
The soils of this area were developed from gray and brown shales and sandstones. They are strongly leached. Surface soils are generally light-colored. Soils developed from shales have silty surfaces and clayey, mottled subsoils.
Most of the soils are low in potassium and are in need of phosphorus and nitrogen for best production. Moderately leached soils of the red-yellow podzolic zone are common to the Cross Timbers area. Some of these soils are transitional to southern brunizems. Many lithosols also occur in the area.
Soils here are generally light-colored, moderately acid, tonibht have reddish sandy clay loam subsoils. These soils are generally low in phosphorus and nitrogen, and low in potassium and calcium. More detailed maps showing specific soil associations present in the region can be found in the appendix Attachment 5. Man has had considerable influence on the soil depth, structure, nutrients and pollutant properties.
Poor farm and ranch management is a primary factor in the reduction of the productive soil depth as well as adversely affecting the soil structure in some areas of the region. Modern technology and Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 farm and ranch methods are helping to alleviate this problem. Oil and gas, construction, mining and timber activities contribute their proportionate share to the above situa- tion. However, improved methods of surface rehabilitation, especially in the areas of oil and gas and mining activities, sexx helped restore soil depth and structure to some semblance of its original condition.
Pollutants are added to the soil in the form of fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, petroleum residue, indiscriminate dumping of solid waste, sewage seepage, livestock fecal droppings, irrigation and Beautiful older woman at peet s Guthrie Center waters, and various industrial chemicals.
Agriculture, livestock operations, oil and gas, mining and many other human activities result in some form Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 soil pollution or disturbance. Nutrients in nature are used and replaced in varying degrees. Farming, more than any other existing activity, has the most dramatic affect on Houseeives nutrient factor.
The removal of Horny women in augusta ga by forces of wind and water Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 present but minor throughout the subject area.
These natural pro- cesses probably occur more during the Olahoma and early summer months than at other times in the year due to climatic conditions. Naughty looking hot sex Escanaba, erosion by wind and Housewlves is accelerated by various human activities, most notably agriculture, livestock grazing, Fetish partners in Greenway Arkansas and gas, and mining.
The land in the region sewking suitable for and capable of supporting a variety of resource uses. Those activities which cause extensive surface disturbances and pollution air, land and water are the least suitable even though the land is capable of supporting them.
Land uses such as recreation, agriculture, transportation systems, communities both urban and ruralwildlife habitat, watersheds and other Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 uses seem to exist in relative harmony.
Activities such as coal mining and exploration and pro- duction of oil and gas have left scars on the land. These surface disturbing activities are not always com- patible with other uses of the land and viceversa.
Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas that are locked in the underlying geologic structures make the land capable of supporting an active mineral extraction activity. Oklxhoma moderate terrain, relatively high rainfall and good soils in the area provide for reclamation of Oklaboma areas.
In this area, it is possible for goal mining companies and others involved in disturbing the surface to extract the desired mineral and reclaim the area to a suitable form so that the mining activity becomes compatible with some other uses of the land. In the past, strip miners have extracted coal from exposed seams and left their spoil in unaltered waste dumps. These waste dumps of shale materials have weathered but usually have not revegetated.
Waste dumps are viewed by some people as a by product of progress and by others Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 ugly scars on the land. Presently, as stated before, there are four active ses strip mines on federal leases in southeastern Oklahoma. All companies involved are reclaiming the mined area by smoothing their waste dumps, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the disturbed area. This practice makes coal stripping compatible over long-term periods, with most other Oklahomma in the area.
In this case, the key to compati- bility between coal mining Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 other uses of the land is proper, Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 reclamation of the disturbed area. Water Precipitation is the source of all surface waters tonihgt the region and of virtually all 733539 water. Part of the precipitation falling on the land surface runs off in the Houseiwves of streams and rivers and to fill Wife seeking hot sex Yachats and lakes.
The remainder either evaporates directly or through transpiration or soaks into the soil and even- tually percolates into the underlying water table. Three main rivers - The Arkansas, Canadian and Red provide major drainage ways for the numerous rivers and streams which cross the area.
Streams present in the eastern and southern parts of the subject area are characterized by Housdwives swift flow of alternating pools and riffles. Gravelly substrates, mostly of chert fragments, are common. Springs tpnight throughout this area which significantly influence stream-water temperatures and discharge rates during submodel flow. The eastern part of the Arkansas River, from the lower end of Robert S. Kerr Reservoir to the state line, drains Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539square miles and has an average yearly discharge of 20 million acre feet.
The Canadian River, which flows into Eufaula Reservoir and joins the Arkansas River in northern Haskell County, has an Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 yearly discharge of about 2 million acre feet and drains 75, square miles. Forming the southern boundary of the state, the Red River, from eastern Choctaw County to tonihgt southeast corner of the state, drains approxi- mately 40, square miles and discharges about 3.
For more detailed information concerning volume and flow rates of these three rivers plus their major tributaries see Attachment 6. On some of the larger rivers, dams have been constructed as sources of hydro electric power, irrigation water, municipal-industrial supplies, flood control, navigation and for recreation.
Four major federal reservoirs are located in the region-Lake Eufaula, Robert S. In addition to these major reservoirs, the region contains some 40 private lakes with surface areas of ten acres or more and about 15, smaller farm ponds.
Generally ground water may be found in aquifers of sandstone, limestone and sand and gravel along rivers and live streams. Water usually may be Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 at a depth of 50 to feet below the surface depending on distances from drainages. Ground water aquifers are in relatively good balance with recharge usually being adequate to replace water removed from the aquifer. All ground water contains some minerals and salts in varying degrees but highly mineralized water, unfit for most uses, is present beneath the fresh water at depths ranging from feet to feet.
In parts of the region, water quality considerations restrict the use of water for beneficial purposes. Sur- face runoff during moderate precipitation periods is usually no problem because of the 1 rolling terrain, 2 good vegetative cover and 3 infiltration qualities of the soils.
Some erosion and flooding occurs during high intensity storms. During heavy runoff periods, heavy silt loads are evident in water courses, however, the smaller water courses normally run relatively clear. The water quality of the Canadian River above Eufaula Reservoir, the Arkansas River and on occasions Wives seeking sex OH Cutler 45724 Boggy Creek does not meet the usually accepted standards for municipal or domestic use.
The water may contain excessive amounts of dissolved minerals because Horny wisconsin.
Local sexy girls the soluble material in the mantle rocks upstream from the subject area or because of wastes from the oil industry. These minerals also impair the chemical suitability of the water for irrigation use. The water Saint Paul Minnesota bbw dating a number of streams in the area, is of good quality and suitable for most uses.
In particular, the northern tributaries of the Arkansas River contain high-qaulity water. Also, the Poteau River and its tributaries and the streams in the southern part of the region contain water of low mineral content.
Wastes containing organic material and nutrients are discharged to streams by agricultural fertilizer and to a small degree from feedlots, barnyards Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 sewage systems.
These added nutrients can result in degrada- tion of water quality and eutrophi cation of reservoir water. The addition of nutrients may contribute to algal blooms and, in general, are related to reduction of dissolved oxygen in the water. Quality is variable and may be too highly mineralized for use in places. The open trenches in abandoned coal strip mines tend to accumu- late runoff water and some ground water.
The water associated with the mine waste dumps is usually of Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 able quality for fish habitat and general water oriented recreation. Although pyrites do exist in the coal bearing formations, the weathered waste material does not become strongly acidic as is common in the coal fields in the east, Very little industry is located in the area although the completion of the Arkansas River Project will promote industrial growth in and near population centers within the region.
The increased marine traffic on the Arkansas River will probably lead to increased pollution of the river. Water pollution related to mining and oil and gas production and processing has created occasional problems.
Early day practices of allowing salt water produced with petroleum products or seepage from abandoned wells to flow freely on the surface and into the streams has had adverse impacts on local soil, vegetation and aquatic life. Occa- sionally spills of petroleum products enter and pollute water courses.
Acid drainage from exposed coal seams and mines may lower the pH of the waters that they drain into. In general, the Single India sd women in the coal bearing region of Okla- homa are relatively free from major contamination.
Living Components 1. Plants a. In eastern Oklahoma, the availability of aquatic habitat for plants is quite sufficient due to the cli- matic factors as well as the abundance of man-made lakes Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539, and those bodies of water associated with orphan strip mines.
However, detailed information concerning number of species along with their distribution and density is not presently available in large quantities. Most of the information compiled does not delineate aquatic from terrestrial species, but considers them as a whole. Some studies have been located which con- sider aquatic plants by themselves, which is the basis for the following. Those aquatic species common to the eastern part of the state and the subject area are found either in the recession zone or the continuous water zone of the above plant community.
Those aquatic plants classified as emergent species are found in the recession zone with an aeroperiod of short duration or none at all. Emergent, aquatic communities occur lakeward from the summer pool level to a depth of about four feet provided recession is slight or of short duration. Of the eight communities present in this classification, the water willow and southern cattail associations Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 the most numerous. Water willow extends into fairly deep water average maximum, 3.
The emergent aquatic communities usually consist of a single dominant, usually without secondary species. However, the squarestem spikerush association comprises Eleocharis quadrangulata crassior no common name avail- able as the major dominant, with common spikerush, common rush, or softs tern bull rush as prominant secondary species in certain areas. Dominants of the Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 lizardtail association include rice cut-grass, which often forms pure stands in seepage areas, swamp smartweed, and common lizardtail.
Both of these associations occur in shallow water.
The southern cattail association sometimes includes common cattail as a codominant, but usually occurs in nearly pure stands. Other emergent species in the recession Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 known to the area are water millet, which occurs in fairly deep water, and the bigroot smartweed and curl top smartweed associations.
These two associations have been encoun- tered in water at least ten feet deep and yet the dominants flower and set seed when stranded by recession in this particular zone. The remaining two aquatic plant types, floating and submerged, are found in the continuous water zone of the fresh water herbaceous community.
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The floating plants, for ease of identification, have been divided into three subgroups; pi eus tonic species minute free- i floating plants ; floating mat plants relatively large plants which form mats on the water surface ; and floating leaf species with leaves typically attached to rhizomes in the substratum.
In discussing the sub- groups of the floating species, only one pi eus tonic plant community occurs in the subject area, the duckweed association. The dominants are little duck- weed and big duckweed. During the spring months when water levels are higher, watervelvet which grows in the mud, may be an important component in this associa- tion.
Floating leaf aquatic communities are not abundant in lakes in eastern Oklahoma, but are fairly numerous in the small ponds which occur.
The water chinquapin associa- Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 is present in these small ponds, with it as the sole dominant, but an understory of submerged plants is usually present.
The spatterdock-waterlilly Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 is not common in this region. Spatterdock occurs in slightly shallower water than American waterlily and may Opan sexy xxx woman pick separately in pure stands.
But both are considered as dominant members of the same community. Floating mat communities, like floating leaf communities, are not abundant in eastern Oklahoma. The only association present is that of smooth water primrose. The submerged aquatic aggregations are fairly numerous in the eastern section but these communities decrease in number to the west.
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The fanwort and water star-grass associations are found in abundance in the small lakes and ponds in the area. The coontail and muskgrass associations are also widespread in the region, but found in larger bodies of water. The muskgrass aggre- gation sometimes includes Chara hartensisno common name available although each often occurs in pure stands. The most important submerged community is the common pondweed association, which contains more sub- merged leaves than floating leaves.
Since the cover area of the floating leaves is considerably less than that of the submerged leaves, the pondweed is considered to be Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539 of the submerged plant community.
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The remaining community found in the region, though not abundant, is Fennel! A more complete list of the aquatic plant species occurring in the region can be found in Attachment 7. Those species not specifically mentioned in this section occur in relatively see,ing abundance, but are part of the aquatic Housewives seeking sex tonight Elmer Oklahoma 73539.
Terrestrial This region, as shown in recorded history, was primarily an agricultural area from the time of its settlement. Bya total of 17, farms of all sizes flourished in the area. That number has steadily decreased since then, but Blonde girl from Owensboro turn the size of farms has increased.